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  • Abstract: The development of the surface settlement trough above a tunnel is well described by a Gaussian distribution curve for the case of a single tunnel in “greenfield” conditions. Based on this method, the volume of the surface settlement trough is simply assumed as equal to the amount of the ground loss in the region close to the tunnel. In this study, the volume of settlement troughs due to...

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  • Abstract: Up to 90% of face pressured tunnels, most of them in urban environment, are using EPBM (Earth Pressure Balance Method Technology. Its safety management needs competence and experience both from designer and contractor. It all depends on the ground and on soil mix specifications. Bangkok Metro experience underlines importance of RMP (Risk Management Plan) and GBR (Geotechnical Baseline Report)....

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  • Abstract: This paper presents the challenges of designing two assembly chambers in the Follo Line Project, EPC TBM. The chambers are required for the assembly works of the four tunnel boring machines, two machines in each chamber. These caverns are situated in hard gneiss with a depth from ground surface around 100 m in the North and 65 m in the South. The features of the assembly chambers indicate a...

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  • Abstract: The City Rail Loop is a significant railway development project planned below the Helsinki city centre, Southern Finland. The loop-shaped two-tunnel track railway line runs from Pasila and back via underground stations at Töölö, Helsinki city centre, Hakaniemi. The total length of the railway line is 8 km of which 6 km is underground. The service and rescue tunnel runs alongside the track...

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    Abstract: FIDIC red book contractual framework is widely used in civil works contracts worldwide. Nonetheless some clauses deserve to be revised to allow their correct application to underground works. In particular the geologic risk sharing principles are not integrated in FIDIC standard contract. On the other hand, about risks other than geology related ones, the FIDIC framework affects some of them...

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  • Abstract: There are several corridors of Trans-European Road Network across Bulgaria. One of them is corridor no. IV that secures north-west connection of Bulgaria to Aegean Sea in part of Sofia – Kulata – Thessaloniki. Name of the corridor in this part of Sofia – Kulata is “Motorway Struma” there is a river flowing in parallel to motorway with the same name. Motorway is divided into four sections: Lot 1...

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  • Abstract: Less than 200 immersed tunnels have been constructed around the world and many countries have not yet embraced the technology. It can offer a better way to cross a waterway for environmental, geometric or risk mitigation reasons. When implementing an immersed tunnel project for the first time it is important to gain a broad understanding of the technology and use the knowledge of experienced...

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  • Abstract: In Amsterdam a metro line is being build from North to South. Part of the metro line is realized using immersion techniques. Part of the immersion is done underneath the historic building of Amsterdam Central Station. To make this possible the station building, the railway tracks and platforms had to be given a new foundation and a bridge construction was necessary to create the immersion...

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