Guidelines and Methods on Segmental Tunnel Lining Analysis andDesign – Review and Best Practice Recommendation
Methods for analysis and design of segmental tunnel linings are presented inconformance with standards and guidelines from Austria (ÖVBB), France (AFTES), Germany(DAUB), Japan (JSCE), Netherland, United States (FHWA) and International Tunneling Association(ITA). Effect of embedment loads on segments is analyzed using elastic equations, a beam-springmodel, and Finite Element or Finite Difference Methods. Analysis of segments are studied againstload case of jack thrust forces and cross section changes in joints, using ACI and DAUB formulas,method of Iyengar and advanced 3D and 2D FEM simulations. Resulting forces on the segment areused to design concrete strength and reinforcement. Standard code requirements are presented andtheir merits are discussed for the case of design of segments. Best method of practice for analysis anddesign are recommended and latest developments in segmental tunnel lining systems are presented.