A 3D EPB numerical excavation sequence
Urban tunnelling can be a highly challenging process, especially where ground settlement is not tolerated well, and limited environmental disturbance is required. Controlled mechanised tunnelling is usually preferred in such ground environments, specifically Slurry or EPBM, depending on the ground properties. Although analysis of tunnelling is a three-dimensional (3D) problem, conventional approaches and design methods employed during the design and construction of underground openings are often based on a plane strain analysis of the ground's static response in two dimensions (2D). In this paper, a complete 3D FEM numerical model was used to simulate an Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) excavation sequence. The model focuses on a comparison between different constitutive models while simulating the relevant EPB components such as face pressure, TBM shield, gradual segmental lining etc.