A Method for the Design of FRC Tunnel Linings Reinforced with GFRP Bars
New procedures for the design of precast segmental lining tunnels have been developed in recent years. The use of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars instead of conventional steel bars is increasing in precast segments. Besides, macro-synthetic fibers are also used as a replacement for traditional steel bars. It is possible to find design guidelines for the design of precast segments reinforced with GFRP or fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) precast segments with or without conventional reinforcement. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no design code or guideline for a design methodology for the combination of the two, macro-synthetic FRC tunnel segments reinforced with GFRP. A design procedure is proposed for macro-synthetic FRC precast linings reinforced with GFRP. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for the design according to the temporary load cases as well as permanent loadings for both ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit states (SLS).