Impacts of railway tunnels, a review of practice and trends
The High Speed 2 (HS2) scheme in UK is envisaged to include more than 62km of its route in tunnels. In order to address public concern about the impacts of tunnelling, data have been collected on ground movements and ground-borne noise and vibrations. This paper describes a series of case studies of ground movements due to underground construction and ground-borne noise and vibration from a range of underground rail projects. Data have been collected from current projects: Crossrail, Lee Tunnel and National Grid Tunnels in London; together with those published or available from owners of other projects. Lessons learned where problems have arisen in tunnel construction are described and drawn out. It is clear that there are trends of improving tunnel construction to reduce and mitigate settlement impact; railway design is also reducing ground-borne noise and vibration from trains in tunnels.