Shield urban tunnelling developments applied for the extension of Sao Paulo´s Metro
Sao Paulo´s Metro Network comprises five lines in service with a total extension of 107 km for one of South America´s most boosting cities with a population of over 11 million inhabitants. The network can be considered to still be in its early stages after the first line was constructed in 1968 and it is presently undergoing an extension. Whilst Sao Paulo´s settlement-prone Tertiary soils and also the Crystalline Basement with its different weathering and fracturing grades and the high abrasiveness pose challenges to shield tunneling, they actually represent optimum conditions for high performance shield tunnelling. The paper deals with the experiences gained by Contractor Construtora Norberto Odebrecht and Consultant Maidl Tunnelconsultants in the construction of the metro lines with shield tunnelling technology.