Tunneling to the origin of civilization in Istanbul
Istanbul city is the only city founded on two continents and have been the capital of three empires; Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman, nurtured by these civilizations. Marmaray Tunnel project to connect Asia and Europe began in 2004. The total length of the project is 77 kms and consists of immersed tube tunnel under Bosphorus, bored tunnels under the city on European and Asian sites and four new stations in Kazlicesme, Yenikapi, Sirkeci and Uskudar. The archeological excavations are carried out in Uskudar, Sirkeci and Yenikapi station construction sites. During the Yenikapı station excavation, an ancient Byzantine Port was explored. Thirty two ancient shipwrecks were detected in geological layers which were dated between 4th and 11th centuries. 1.8 m below the port elevation remnants of neolotic civilization were found making Istanbul the oldest city witnessing civilizations from 8500 years before to present.