Full-round numerical analysis of traditional steel bar and macro synthetic fibre reinforced concrete segments for the Shanghai Metro Extension
The fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) in question is a short fibre composite, where the matrix is a quasi-brittle material: concrete, and the fibres are made of different materials (e.g. steel, polypropylene, etc.) with different shapes (e.g. round, oval, etc.), random but uniformly distributed, relatively short fibres. The synthetic fibers started to spread in the industry in the last decades, first as micro fibre to prevent early age shrinkage crack of the concrete, than macro synthetic fibres for structural use. These macro synthetic fibres were first used in shotcrete in mines and civil tunnels  then slowly introduced to the precast concrete industry (e.g. water tanks), infrastructure (e.g. tramline, road) and the tunnelling industry as primary reinforcing for tunnel segments [10,12]. Today, macro synthetic fibre has a wide range of references in every field of the construction industry.